True density prediction of garlic slices dehydrated by convection


Anabel L'opez-Ortiz, Juan Rodr'ıguez-Ram'ırez, and Lilia M'endez-Lagunas


Journal of food science. 81, 1 (2016) E49-E55


Convective drying. Correlationship. Solid density. True density model.


Physiochemical parameters with constant values are employed for the mass‐heat transfer modeling of the air drying process. However, structural properties are not constant under drying conditions. Empirical, semi‐theoretical, and theoretical models have been proposed to describe true density (ρp). These models only consider the ideal behavior and assume a linear relationship between ρp and moisture content (X); nevertheless, some materials exhibit a nonlinear behavior of ρp as a function of X with a tendency toward being concave‐down. This comportment, which can be observed in garlic and carrots, has been difficult to model mathematically. This work proposes a semi‐theoretical model for predicting ρp values, taking into account the concave‐down comportment that occurs at the end of the drying process. The model includes the ρs dependency on external conditions (air drying temperature (Ta)), the inside temperature of the garlic slices (Ti), and the moisture content (X) obtained from experimental data on the drying process. Calculations show that the dry solid density (ρs) is not a linear function of Ta, X, and Ti. An empirical correlation for ρs is proposed as a function of Ti and X. The adjustment equation for Ti is proposed as a function of Ta and X. The proposed model for ρp was validated using experimental data on the sliced garlic and was compared with theoretical and empirical models that are available in the scientific literature. Deviation between the experimental and predicted data was determined. An explanation of the nonlinear behavior of ρs and ρp in the function of X, taking into account second‐order phase changes, are then presented